Hepatitis may be viral, induced by the causal viruses А, В, С and other, toxic and drug-induced.
Non-viral (toxic) hepatitis is developed when the poison is occurred in the body (from alcohol, mushrooms, poisonous plants). They can be acute, subacute and chronic.
Drug-induced hepatitis is caused by the toxic action of the drugs. Most often it is caused by the psychotropic drugs, tranquilizers, contraceptives, anabolic steroids.
Viral hepatitis is the hepatic inflammation caused by the viral infection. The different types of the viral hepatitis are identified by the letters from A to G, the most common are hepatitis A, B and C. Their occurrence around the world is rather high.
The most common is hepatitis A, when the virus usually enters the body orally. It is an acute inflammation of the liver with the symptoms of jaundice. When the acute phase of the disease is completed, the patient returns to normal life for a few months. Hepatitis A does not have a risk of the serious complications, treatment is symptomatic.
Viral hepatitis В is already a serious disease that can occur acutely and chronically. It is transmitted through blood, saliva, contaminated needles and sexually. The drug addicts are in the group of the increased risk. Chronic viral hepatitis B often develops in the unsuccessful or untimely treatment of its acute form, and may eventually lead to cirrhosis; the malignant liver tumors often develop secondary to it.
Despite the mandatory vaccination in childhood and recommended immunization in adulthood, the increased incidence of this disease is recorded. This disorder is usually asymptomatic, often the body kills the virus and acquires immunity for the rest of life. Sometimes hepatitis В proceeds in the acute form, which is associated with the acute hepatic dysfunction. The most dangerous id the chronic form, which leads to the complications similar to the ones of hepatitis C. Chronicity develops in 10% of infected patients.
The virus of hepatitis C is much more dangerous. Viral hepatitis С is transmitted through the blood, sexually and from mother to child during delivery. It may occur in the acute form, asymptomatically, but in 85% of cases it becomes chronic and in many years it is transformed into cirrhosis with the subsequent development of hepatic carcinoma.
No vaccine against hepatitis C is available.
Hepatitis D and E are rare for our country. The infection is usually associated with the trip to the exotic country or close contact with a sick person. Hepatitis D virus can only develop in patients with hepatitis B; it aggravates its course and has a similar route of infection. Infection with hepatitis E does not have the risk of life-threatening complications, and the infection itself most often occurs by the parenteral route.