Diagnosis and treatment of acetonemic syndrome

Acetonemic syndrome in children is a pathological condition of the body, manifested by a symptom complex and is characterized by disorders of metabolic processes. The maximum allowable concentrations of ketone bodies are exceeded, which causes problems in the condition.

The pathological condition is caused by a relative deficiency of carbohydrates with excess of fatty acids with ketogenic amino acids in a child’s diet. The development of the syndrome is additionally facilitated by the insufficient production of enzymes involved in oxidative processes by the liver.

Children are prone to acetonemia due to metabolic particulars, resulting in a decrease in ketolysis. As a result of enhanced processes of blood lipolysis, the concentration of acetyl coenzyme A increases, the activity of enzymes stimulating the formation of cholesterol, fatty acids decreases. Acetyl coenzyme A begins to be removed as a result of ketolysis.

Factors that contribute to the appearance of acetonemic syndrome include psychoemotional shocks, stress, intoxication, pain, insolation, infection, and an improper diet. In newborns, the condition can occur as a result of the mother’s late toxicosis.


Acetonemic syndrome most often develops in children with an abnormal constitution. Such babies have increased excitability and, accordingly, are prone to exhaustion of the nervous system. Their constitution is lean; shyness, neuroses, restless sleep are present.

The syndrome can occur unnoticed before the crisis develops. Triggers for the crisis are agitation, loss of appetite, nausea, apathy, and constant migraines.
The main symptom of the pathology is indomitable repeated vomiting, especially when trying to eat or drink. There are signs of intoxication, dehydration. Increased motor excitement is abruptly replaced by drowsiness, weakness; in severe forms of the course of the disease, the development of meningeal attacks, convulsions is likely.

Typical signs of the syndrome are spasms in the abdomen, stool disorders, fever. A sharp smell of acetone comes from the mouth, from urine and skin.

Diagnosis and therapy

Diagnosis of the syndrome is performed with consideration of the history, complaints, clinical symptoms, data of laboratory tests. Be sure to establish the degree — primary or secondary. The primary occurs in the age of 1-12 years, the secondary is diagnosed at an older age, usually accompanied by chronic diseases.

The therapy is aimed at arresting the crises. In the periods between attacks, treatment should be carried out aimed at reducing the risks of exacerbations. During a crisis, hospitalization is usually indicated to children.

The diet should be balanced — with a high content of easily digestible carbohydrate components and plenty of fluids. The portions are fractional, a patient should eat often. Enemas with sodium bicarbonate, neutralizing some of the ketones in the intestine, are useful. Oral rehydration is provided by alkaline mineral water and combination solutions. In severe dehydration, infusion therapy is useful — saline and glucose are administered by drop infusion. Antiemetic drugs, antispasmodics, sedatives are prescribed on a case-by-case basis.

Prevention and use of Betargin

Prevention of acetonemic syndrome consists in a proper diet, timely treatment of infectious diseases, and prevention of psychoemotional overloads. Liver support is needed after antibiotic treatment. Adjust your diet and take supplements — for example, Betargin. Thanks to Betargin, the child’s body will receive the necessary amino acids, they will initiate the liver detoxification, remove toxins, activate regenerative processes at the cellular level.

Betargin is a European-quality product intended for oral use, with a pleasant taste. Betargin can be given to children over 3 years old.

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