Lipid metabolism disorders

In this article we will discuss what fat metabolism is, manifestations and potential hazards of its disorders. Diseases associated with problematic lipid metabolism constitute a large group. It includes:
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • obesity.

    In advanced situations, ischemia, stroke, infarction, and other complications can develop in association with metabolic disorders.

Lipid metabolism: concept, types, causes of disorders

Fat metabolism is interpreted as a set of processes associated with the absorption, digestion of neutral fats, lipid decomposition products in the digestive tract. It is responsible for the intermediate results of metabolism of fatty acids, fats, their excretion from the body. Cholesterol is carried by lipoprotein molecules. Their types are:
  • chylomicrons;
  • very low density lipoproteins (VLDL);
  • low density lipoproteins (LDL);
  • high density lipoproteins;
  • intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL);
  • simple lipoprotein (a).
The content of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids in particles is different. LDLs are the main carriers of cholesterol within cells. The development of atherosclerotic vascular lesions is associated with an increase in the number of elements. High density lipoproteins contribute to cholesterol excretion to the liver for subsequent utilization. The main diagnostic tool is a blood test for total cholesterol. Quanfication of proteins helps to clarify diagnoses, to assess the risks of the occurrence of pathological changes of heart vessels. The value of molecular biological techniques for assessing lipid status has increased markedly in recent years.
Lipid metabolism disorder usually becomes a consequence of a lack of pancreatic lipase, a decrease in the secretion of bile, and the intestinal epithelium dysfunction. Other causes of pathology are jaundice, pancreatitis, vagotomy, radiation sickness, Whipple’s syndrome. For successful recovery, it is necessary to eliminate the primary factors of development of the pathology and the consequences of their effects on the body.

Prevention of development and treatment of disorders

Treatment of impaired fat metabolism involves elimination of the physiological causes of an established disorder. It is necessary to eliminate the factors that led to development of the problem, and restore normal metabolism. It is important to follow a diet — to restrict consumption of fat, sweets; in case of cachexy, the content of carbohydrates and fats has to be increased, but gradually. It is desirable for a doctor to prescribe a diet after examination and with consideration of all individual characteristics of a patient’s body. For obesity, adequate physical activity is necessary. If no improvement is observed, consult an endocrinologist.

The main measures to prevent problems with fat metabolism include a healthy lifestyle, sufficient physical activity. Be attentive to your health — yes, people do not die of lipid metabolism disorders, but pathology has a negative effect on wellbeing, general health, and can cause the development of serious systemic pathologies.

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